Assessment and Study Group
- Assessment methods.
- Assessment methods used in Iran.
- The assessment results of this project.
- The end of studies.
- Studies still in progress.
Reports and documents
Related links and resources Assessment methods for showing and recognizing the amount of effectiveness in the cloud seeding project, different methods have been used which are as follows:
Random Assessment: In this method the stormy days and storms are selected at random. The advantage of this method is that the climatology change which can play an effective role in rain change can be omitted. The limitations of this method are as follows:
Actually two clouds or stormy weather are not the same.
- Because of the susceptible clouds that are seen, there are chances of mistakes in the specification of the clouds.
- Chances of special happenings which may or may not help in cloud seeding and also the effectiveness on the results.
- As the random system is used, the chances of seeding clouds which are suitable go out of hand and for this reason the profit related to expanses declines.
- Technical equipment’s with highest applicability like aircrafts equipped with measuring gauges of atmospheric parameters and physical characteristics and micro physics of the clouds.
- Radar network of aerology with suitable coverage should be present in the areo.
- The presence of rain measuring network applicable with standard density is a must.
- The needed period for achieving a stable result, consists of longer time span.
- The method due to having its limitations in different research fields is not applicable in Iran.
Physical Assessment: for knowing whether the cloud has been seeded and that cloud is a suitable selection, the physical assessment is used in this regard the method for physical assessment is as follows:
- Physical measuring gauges are used for comparing the changes in same parameters of the clouds, the number of crystals and their shape, particle spectrum by using the IN and CCN counters and also equipment for sampling the cloud drops and specification of Ice crystal shapes and with the research aircraft returning and the measurement of the other particles in the seeding material, in rain with the analysis of attracting atomic particles without flame and also making the Notron active.This method proves that silver or the other particles have been washed away by rain and is not the producer of crystals.
- The use of chemical material finders like Hexafluoride Sulphur(SF6) tri oxide indium (IN203) and sodium paricles.
This material works as a deactivator and is ineffective when injected into the clouds for seeding purposes. These equipment’s which are installed in the aircraft is used specially for detecting these particles on earth. The detectory are not core builders instead they are to specify the active silver which works as the core builder and is the confirmatory factor in one of the linking factors of cloud seeding and ice production. Some detectors like Indium have to be used simultaneously with the seeding material to be injected and sometime some Sodium with seeding material is mixed for the purpose of injecting.
The radar display: By using radars at the X point, the injection of vertical and horizontal rays with the water vapor contact is also calculated. Tracking the materials in clouds even with gentle rains is feasible by releasing the reflective fine particles of (چاف) for the polarized چاف signals are much bigger than the rain droplets. Scanning clouds and the track of چاف ها pave the path for the observation of the three dimensional trend of the Phenomenon. The چاف do not enjoy any Sedimentations inside clouds and fall gaining a velocity of 30 cmls while separating from the materials.
Application of computerized models can detect the areas for descending cloud seeding materials not targeted or the regions not affected due to server winds.
This report contains there volumes. This being for the peas ability and study of the climate of the Fars and Kerman province. The analysis of the parameters concerning aerology, specially pressure, the height of the basis of the clouds, distribution of the water suitable for rain, rain control, cloud cover and the number of days which are unstable and also the evaluation of the dry and wet years, the suitable months for cloud seeding for these two provinces wen considered.
This report contains 4 volumes and in this report the climatic and geographic conditions of Qom and Semnan provinces are studied, the aerology network and the statistical information study stations, studies the number of days of the low pressure system of the area, the ram control, the amount of water for rain, the height of the clouds, the cloud fusion, humidity and rain, and the suitable months for cloud seeding in the two quoted provinces were considered.
This report contains 4 volumes and also has an extra report in to it. This report just like the other reports, studies the climatic and geographic area conditions along with the network information of the inductive load, the effective system on the basis of area recognition and then with the analysis of the aerology information studies, statistics like pressure, humidity, air, rain, the amount of rain, pressure and the environmental and atmospheric conditions for the suitable months for cloud seeding in the Sistan and Baluchistan provinces were specified.
The study contains ?? volumes and has 21 chapters, this report is about the geographical study of Khorasan province, its clouding condition, rain, pressure, humidity, air, the amount of rain water, vegetation, topography, the situation and condition of the rain evaluating stations and the analysis of the air storm, after which bringing in to consideration the climatic conditions and its rain evaluation stations. In the 6 parts of the province AbrizAtrak having highest percentage of rainfall annually, and also having the highest rainfall averagely every year and also having the lowest temperature averagely every year has won the first place among the cloud seeding areas. Taking into account that this area being mountainous area, it has rivers, canyons and many water ways can be seen in this area with life time reservoirs of snow and water.
The first volume is one of the requirements for bring to a balance the climate of the 8 parts. Information concerning climate balance different economic subjects and agricultural insurance are the points that are taken into consideration and are analyzed on the scientific and social basis. In the 2nd volume as one of the basis physical reference for climate change and its brief history, the science of cloud seeding, atmospheric air and the making of water and ice, physics references to different cloud seeding methods, its principles and the knowledge of physics for increasing rain and fog. In the third volume, points regarding the review of cloud seeding experiments in different countries, like Australia, Middle east, South Africa, Italy and America have been described and the directions of cloud seeding in Australia are considered to be as a sample for study.
In the Fourth volume the review of the equipment’s, the cloud seeding agents, and also the details of the seeding tools needed like different airplanes, and its different equipment’s related to it, core making and the silver yodvar injections to the clouds through generators are the related points which are studied. In the fifth volume a review of the numerical models of cloud fertility is indeed in different numbered models with various analysis methods.
In the sixth volume the feasibility of cloud seeding, its tests for Khorasan province with its programs and directions as per world aerology Centre along it’s the feasibility of cloud seeding in Khorasan province with climate change studies in Sinopereky province.
In this report with the studies of the rain control, ?? pressure, pressure, Daylisght time change and the specifications of cloud density and also the study of the dispersion amount, its coordination as well as the map of Tehran in tune with rainfall. The change rainfall amount in the months during different periods, the date calculated is used for giving result to the cloud seeding project in Karaj, and Lityan areas are evaluated.
In this study the weather/ climate, geographical and aerology parameters of Yazd province and the surrounding areas are considered. The tools required in this project are used in the central plateau of Iran. Statistical methods for evaluating the cloud seeding project during different periods of December 2oo6 until April 2007 has been described and then the distribution of the limitations for the different provinces, its amount of flowing water through this project and the effects of cloud fertility on the under water reservoirs during the different months has been calculated during the project period.
Report of Yazd(1) the details of the first cloud seeding project in the central areas of Iran is written in the Yazd(1) report. In the year 77-78 which was a wet year and due to the contract for executing and transfer of Russian cloud seeding technology in an area of 200Km with Yazd being the center was executed by the Russian observatory experts during the period of 30th Jan to 29th April 1999. Just one aerology radar was used which was installed in Dehshir of Yazd and one Antonof 30 Aircraft was used for this purpose. The number of cloud seeding flights being 31 with approximately 78/5 hours were conducted and during this period an amount of 4070 grams of cloud seeding material having silver iodine was used the amount of acquired water through cloud seeding with the old rigerson method was evaluated to 1800 meter/ per square. The Yazd (1) report consists of 4 chapters and three parts. These include the geographical and climatic specifications of on area and also the cloud seeding methods, a brief history of the technology used has also been given. The specifications of the technical equipment’s used in this project like the Antonof 30 Aircraft, the aerology radar of ocsopri, a detailed plan of the flights done and the sinopitik conditions related, the overall project evaluation as per statistics, training personal, Result, and the other reports included are the information registered during the flight activity.
After the execution of the project in Falat central part of Iran from the observatory institute of Russian Aerology CAO and draught situation of northern parts of the country, the second cloud seeding project was carried out from 16th of June to 22th July 1999 in the Gilan province and its surrounding areas. The details of this project one Antonof 30 aircraft of Russian origin was used, 19 such test flights with a total of 45/5 hours were executed. The material used was 2700 gram and as per Regerson historical method 400 million meter/ square of water was acquired. During this project the Iranian exports also were given practiced training.
Gilan(1) project: consists of 4 chapters and 3 parts includes the geographical and climate descriptions of the area and also the cloud fertility methods, a brief history of the technology used and the equipment’s used in this project like Antonof 30 aircraft and the aerology radar Dcsopriand also a complete plan of the active flights with the Sinopetaki related conditions with the data evaluation of the project along with staff education, result making and included extra repots are the information reported from the active flights.
Yazd report(2): The details of the second cloud seeding project in central Iran during the wet years 78-79 was prepared. The activity took place in an area of 300Km with Yazd being the center city with the help of the Russian experts of the observatory center alongside the experts of the National center for research and studies for cloud seeding. During this period which was from 20th January to 18th April 2000 one aerology radar was which was installed in Dehshir Yazd. With one Antonof 30 aircraft.The number of 4200 gram of cloud seeding material having yudvar silver and 800 kilogram of Azet liquid.
The amount of water acquired as per regersiyun method was 700 million meters/ square. During this period the Russian experts gave a 300 hour training session (practical) for transferring a part of the technology to the Iranians.
Yazd report(2): This report consists of 4 chapters and three parts having description of the technical and measuring tools used for the project, an overall description of the active flights and the sinopitiky conditions, the data evaluation of how much the project is worth and the training of staff and the extra report included are registered during the active flights.
Yazd Report(3) The details of the second cloud fertility project in the central parts of Iran during the wet years 78-79 was carried out in the vicinity of 300Km with Yazd being the center which was done with the help of the Russian observatory exports and the national experts of the research and study center. During this period from 20th January to 18th April 2000, one aerology radar equipment and one Antonof 30 aircraft having 33 flights with a 94 hour flight time was used, the amount of 4200 gram of seeding material having yudvar silver and 800Kg of Azet liquid was also used. The amount of water acquired is through cloud fertility and during this period with the use of the old regerson method 700 million meter/ square water was reported. During this period 300 hours theory training was given by the Russian experts which was part of the practical technology transferred to the Iranian experts.
Yazd Report (3) This report consists of 4 chapters and threes parts having rain evaluation stations used for project evaluation, its description, an overall description of the active flights and the Simopitiky conditions related, the evaluation of the statistical data of the project, training sessions for staff, result making, and the extra reports included were the information that was registered during active flights. This report was made on the basis of the draught gear in Gilanprovince during the summer 78 were under taken in the northern part of the country. In this report the rain control, are pressure, temperature, Daylight time change, cloudy description and the study of the amount for dispersion and also the different parameters according to the maps of the raining areas were studied and evaluated during the different months and during different time periods. This report being the complete report of the basic report which was written in a more detailed way. Cloud fertility potential and the atmospheric and physical conditions with climatic changes were studied. The cloud fertility project was underraken in Syria after the agreement was made with Russian observatory and aerology center. This project was undertaken in 4 periods from 1991 to 1995, and during the execution, this technology was transferred to the Syrians by them. The cloud fertility project in Syria was executed with Four aircrafts (Russian) and after that in the year 1992 with 4 Syrian aircraft (2 Antonof 26 and 2 yak 40) was undertaken through the torch shooting system of pyrotechnic yudvar silver PV-26 and PV-50. During this period 4 aerology radars MRL-5 were used. The result of evaluated project was given through a 4 year period and the old Regersiyun method (for data evalution) showed a 14% increase in the rainfall in all Syrian areas. This report shows the lab methods of the effectiveness of the perotechnic mixtures and the agents of Ice making for cluod fertility during mist and cold clouds. For this reason all the lab equipment’s and measuring equipment’s, the methods of effective ice making agents and its use with the mistake probability along with climatic condition knowledge and also the accuracy of measurement has been quoted here the purpose of this article is the study of the effectiveness of dust and its dynamic effects on clouds and the fertility result in the occupied Palestine. During the 1969-70 till 1990-91 were analysed. This work was done with analysis effectiveness of fertility in the occupied Palestine with the distribution of days and the cloudy system suitable for rain is in the south, the rain fall increases.
Answers to Questions:
Q1- Whether cloud fertility will actually increase the rainfall and the amount of rain increase by executing this project?
A1- Not only different tests/ experiments under laboratory conditions have shown the effectiveness of the fertility material but it has also had scientific tests and its effects on different clouds in different areas and its climatic changes . The evaluation result (basically data) have been published in the scientific articles and famous Journals. A summary of these documents have been published by the society of climate balance, society of American Aerology and the world organization of Aerology. Studies done by this center shows that they are authentic. Increase in rainfall in the winter season in continental areas can range between 5% to 20% and in the coastal areas between 5% to 30%. For the summer season it has been estimated to 100% for the clouds that are unique.
Q2- Difficulties and problems for the evaluation of the cloud fertility?
- The nature of atmospheric condition is always changing so this fact effects a lot in the rainfall.
- The methods for specifying the natural rain areas with ??accuracy it’s not possible.
- The capability of the rain increasing projects in different climatic changes are different.
- For the reason of this effective plan for the change in the natural rainfall system, to link the rain increase with cloud fertility may change to big challenge.
Report of the Syrian Visit
This report has been sent by the administration on Saturday 11/07/2009 at 10:16.
Reports: A brief report of a visit to Syria from a group of experts of the cloud fertility center of Iran, describing the Syrian cloud fertility center’s facilities and equipment’s.
With respect to the national center of studies and research for cloud fertility affiliated to the power ministry of Iran and the invitation of the Syrian center for cloud fertility affiliated to the ministry of agriculture from 19/11/2008 to 26/11/2008 was related by 3 representatives from the fertility center of Iran. The main purpose of this visit was to recognize the capabilities of Iranian and Syrians in fields like balance of climate. For getting to the purpose the following plan was put to execution:
1- Visiting the cloud fertility center and acquaintance with different groups for cloud fertility projects.
2- Visiting the aerology radar installed in the Damascus Airport.
3- Visiting the material Quality control laboratory for cloud fertility and being introduced to the working procedure. These tests are undertaken with the equipment’s made in Syria having lab room having a cloud room, water vapor making equipment, Isolated room with filtering facilities for making Aerosols through the burning of cloud fertility material, microscopes and cameras equipped for taking pictures from the crystals.
4- Visiting the production plau of the cloud fertility materials near the Halab city and getting acquainted to the making of some chemical materials along with the technical specifications. Of course organizing meetings for the exchange of information with the related staff.
5- Visiting the Antonof 26 aircraft yak 40 and also getting to know the different stages of the active flight task.
6- Participating in the meetings with the presence of the subordinates of the ministry of agriculture of Syria (Mr. Ban: Rashid Mohammad) the head and subordinate of the Syrian cloud fertility center (Mr. Ali Abbas and doctor Bahij), Iranian consulate representative (Economic Dept) (Mr. Mortazavi and also the experts from the National center of cloud fertility of Iranian (Mrs. SeyedHoseini and Mr. Fallahi and Golkar) for studies in a friendly atmosphere, because of this positive and cooperative attitude the experience and technology transfer was carried out between Syria and Iran are as follows:
1- Technology transfer along with manufacturing information and the manufacturing technology of silver iodine of PV-26 between Syria and Iran.
2- Sales of PV-26 patrons as per requirement for Iran.
3- Setting up the cloud physics laboratory and quality controlled cloud fertility materials with the participation of Iranian expert, the delivery of aircrafts and specialist Syrian staff for cloud fertility purposes for project sharing. Execution of research programs jointly ventured for cloud fertility of warm clouds in Iran with special cloud fertility material which is made in Syria. This material is exchanged between the 2 countries related to aerology radars, Aircraft equipment’s and different cloud fertility materials like patron PV-26 is of importance. In spite of theses meeting and visits, the new developments in other fields like solar energy and Air energy were also exchanged between Syria and Iran.
Basic specification of the Aerology radar.
The use of standard X-range aerology (the scientific wavelength 3.3mm) for getting information
- An area of 200Km for evaluative and coverage.
- Alternation and the scan period 10 minutes.
- The scale of map 2005 x 200Km2 400x400km2
- The cell size and the information in the scope 4x4, 2x2Km.
One of the main specifications of the electromagnetic waves which were sent through the aerology radars, and being completed had the information about parts of the clouds and it’s forming in one big limited area. The radars which are present at the millimeter wave length, have weaker rays and there effect on the density and cloud grouping is considerable. For this reason the best wavelengths used in the aerology radars are 10-3cm. the use of 3cm wavelength for cloud seeing with lesser accumulation or 10cm for cloud accumulation is most suitable. The specialty of radar measuring in aerology is to recognize the subject, the amount and the quality aims of the radar through rays and relaying the Akha towards the radars. The radar works on the basis of a static electromagnetic wave whose arm is to specify the direction, distance and destination of the radar. The has different shapes, the one’s which work according to the sound pulse atmosphere are mostly in use. Small pulses with high frequency is the basis of the waves that are sent by radars and are related to the Antenna specifications. If the rays are sent or dispersed in air (strong electromagnetic pulse waves) for one purpose and also with a different electrical specification, then it will change the purpose of the radar to the capability of signals and its importance. When the short pulses with high frequency strike each other, the returning waves reserves after striking each other will be changed to the secondary wave that has been produced and it is in this situation that the effectiveness of the returning signals and its purpose shows its importance.
The specifications of the aerology radar site center.
The aerology national network center has 4 radar sites for research and study of cloud fertility and at this moment two sites in Kordabaddehshir, Yazd province and Shahrbabak in Kerman province have been prepared for activity from the years 1377 to 1349. The third site was inaugurated in Kuhpayeh of Esfahan province in the year 1384 and the mechanical site being the 4th site was started in Tehran and the areas around it.